The Polish Office of Competition and Consumer Protection (Urząd Ochrony Konkurencji i Konsumentów, “UOKiK”) has recently published its 2015 annual report presenting its first experiences with the recent amendments to Polish merger control regulations. However, only future developments will show the effects of the new much more severe rules on cartel

On 14 January 2017, the Italian Council of Ministers approved the Legislative Decree implementing Directive 2014/104/EU on certain rules governing actions for damages under national law for infringements of the competition law provisions of the Member States and of the European Union (the “Directive”). The final version of the Legislative Decree has not been published

On 5 May 2016, the Polish Office of Competition and Consumer Protection (UOKiK) published a position paper in which it expressed its opinion on Uber’s operations on the Polish market for transportation services.

UOKiK has been monitoring and analysing the effects of the emergence of such online platforms on the Polish market and concluded that Uber (i) encourages competition, (ii) is beneficial to consumers and (iii) provides for innovative solutions.


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Since the entry into force on 1 October 2014 of the provisions of the “Hamon” law of 17 March 2014, which introduced class actions into French law in relation to consumer and competition law matters, only six class actions have been brought.

The first action was filed on the date the new law came into effect by the consumer association UFC – Que Choisir against Foncia, a real estate group, to obtain compensation for the service charges levied by Foncia. The most recent class actions seem to have been brought in May 2015 by the consumer association Familles Rurales: one against SFR, a network operator that allegedly misled consumers as to the geographic coverage of its 4G network, and one very limited action against a campground operator who forced campervan owners to buy new ones after 10 years if they wanted to keep their plots.

Class actions are clearly not as popular as had been hoped, at least not yet. Indeed, of the (only) six procedures brought before the French Courts, four were brought around one month after the law came into effect, and all relate to consumer matters. One action led to a €2 million settlement intended to compensate the damages suffered by 100,000 consumers who had been required to pay excessive charges for elevator tele-surveillance.

The limited attractiveness of class actions is probably due to the strict conditions for bringing an action under the Hamon law.


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On July 16, 2014, Andrew Gavil, Director of the Office of Policy Planning at the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), testified on the subject of “Competition and the Potential Costs and Benefits of Professional Licensure” before the House Committee on Small Business.  Gavil explained the FTC’s rationale for evaluating the competitive effects of different licensing regimes

by Philipp Werner and Wilko van Weert

On 13 December 2012, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) held that national competition authorities (NCAs) can apply European competition rules, and fine companies for an infringement of EU rules, even in cases where the European Commission considers that Article 101(1) Treaty on the functioning