Senate Democrats Push for Tougher Merger Enforcement

By , and on September 18, 2017

On September 14, 2017, Senator Amy Klobuchar (D-MN), introduced new legislation to curtail market concentration and enhance antitrust scrutiny of mergers and acquisitions. As the Ranking Member of the Senate Judiciary Committee’s Subcommittee on Antitrust, Competition Policy and Consumer Rights, Klobuchar is the leading Senate Democrat for antitrust issues.

Two bills were submitted to the Senate: the Consolidation Prevention and Competition Promotion Act (CPCPA) and the Merger Enforcement Improvement Act (MEIA). The CPCPA is co-sponsored by Senators Kirsten Gillibrand (D-NY), Richard Blumenthal (D-CT) and Ed Markey (D-MA). The MEIA is co-sponsored by Senators Blumenthal, Markey and Gillibrand, along with Senators Patrick Leahy (D-VT), Al Franken (D-MN), Cory Booker (D-NJ), Dick Durbin (D-IL), Mazie Hirono (D-HI) and Tammy Baldwin (D-WI). Both bills propose amendments to the Clayton Act. Earlier this year, Senate democrats announced these legislative proposals as part of their “A Better Deal” antitrust agenda.


  • Notably, the CPCPA proposes to revise the Clayton Act so that in challenging an acquisition, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and Department of Justice (DOJ) would only have to show that the proposed transaction materially lessens competition rather than significantly lessens competition, which is the current standard. The legislation defines “materially lessens competition” to mean “more than a de minimis amount.” This change would reduce the burden of proof for the government in challenging an acquisition.

  • The CPCPA would impose extra scrutiny on large companies seeking approval of so-called “mega deals” that significantly increase market concentration, by shifting the burden of proof from antitrust enforcers to the companies. It would thus become the merging parties’ responsibility to prove that the transaction does not harm competition. This would apply to deals in which the value of an acquired business exceeds $5 billion or the transaction meets the Hart-Scott-Rodino (HSR) size of transaction test (currently $80.8 million) and either party has assets, sales or market capitalization over $100 billion.
  • The CPCPA would update the Clayton Act to refer to “monopsonies” in addition to “monopolies” codifying existing merger enforcement principles (see Horizontal Merger Guidelines § 1).
  • Finally, the CPCPA would also create a new Office of Competition Advocate within the FTC. This new office would chiefly be responsible for making recommendations to both the FTC and DOJ to solicit reports regarding potential anticompetitive practices or adverse effects of competition in the marketplace.
  • The MEIA seeks to increase the resources allocated to antitrust enforcers. First, in terms of substantive information, the MEIA requires companies that complete transactions by entering into consent orders to submit annual reports for five years regarding market pricing and merger-related efficiencies. Second, in financial terms, the MEIA increases funding for the FTC and DOJ Antitrust Division. It also proposes to lower the HSR pre-merger notification filing fees for the three current transaction categories and create three new filing fee categories with substantial fees for deals in excess of $1 billion.


  • Although it is unlikely that either proposal will pass in a Republican-held Senate, companies should keep these legislative proposals in mind because they may signal the approach that Congressional Democrats would take if they were to win midterm elections in either the House or the Senate. If the legislation is enacted, merging parties will face a higher burden to obtain merger clearance, as well as an onerous obligation to produce documents and data post-clearance.
  • Congressional Democrats continue to push for aggressive antitrust enforcement to “crackdown” on big corporations and high market concentration. The Democrats’ “A Better Deal” platform and the proposal of legislation shows that antitrust will continue to be a political topic for the foreseeable future.
Gregory E. Heltzer
Gregory (Greg) E. Heltzer focuses his practice on defending mergers and acquisitions before the US Federal Trade Commission, US Department of Justice, state antitrust authorities and foreign competition authorities. Greg has extensive experience in evaluating whether potential transactions will be cleared by antitrust enforcers and developing a viable path for clearance. In addition, he handles complex antitrust litigation, government investigations and antitrust counseling. Read Greg Heltzer's full bio.

Louise Aberg
Louise Aberg focuses her practice on US, EU and French antitrust law, including merger control, cartels, and abuse of dominance. Louise also regularly advises clients in relation to distribution strategies and compliance programs. She represents clients before the Federal Trade Commission, the Department of Justice, the European Commission, and the French Competition Authority. Read Louise Aberg's full bio.

Lisa A. Peterson
Lisa A. Peterson focuses her practice on antitrust, regulatory and litigation matters. She assists clients across a variety of industries and has represented numerous clients in the health care, pharmaceutical, and biotechnology industries. Lisa advises clients on mergers and acquisitions, including obtaining clearance from the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and Department of Justice (DOJ), as well as counsels clients on issues regarding antitrust compliance, pricing, and distribution. She also counsels clients on cartel prosecutions and defenses, including government investigations and the initiation and defense of civil class action litigation. Read Lisa Peterson's full bio.





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