The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has looked at licensing boards many times in the past and advocated for regulations with less restriction that promote competition. There are numerous examples of antitrust regulators’ interest in occupational licensing and competition concerns, including Advanced Practice Registered Nurses in the VA, non-lawyers in the provision of legal services, and dental regulatory boards. Acting Chairman Maureen Ohlhausen recently gave a speech at the Antonin Scalia Law School addressing economic liberty, including a critique of occupational licensing where she stated, “I challenge anyone to explain why the state has a legitimate interest in protecting the public from rogue interior designers carpet-bombing living rooms with ugly throw pillows.”
- Acting Chairman Ohlhausen reiterated her view that occupational licensing inhibits economic liberty. “Market dynamics will naturally weed out those who provide a poor service, without danger to the public. For many other occupations, the costs of added regulation limit the number of providers and drive up prices. These costs often dwarf any public health or safety need and may actually harm consumers by limiting their access to beneficial services.”
- In the 1950s, less than five percent of jobs required a license. Today, approximately 25 to 30 percent of jobs require a license.
- Different states regulate different occupations, and licensing requirements for the same occupations often vary significantly among states.
- In her speech, Acting Chairman Ohlhausen said she is creating an Economic Liberty Task Force within the FTC. This task force will focus on occupational licensing regulations.
WHAT THIS MEANS:
- We will likely see an increase in FTC actions involving licensing boards, such as in North Carolina Dental, where it is not the state itself acting but self-interested active market incumbents who impose occupational licensing requirements that limit competition.
- The FTC Task Force will seek to “eliminate and narrow overbroad occupational licensing restrictions that are not narrowly tailored to satisfy legitimate health and safety goals.”
- The FTC will help states identify problematic occupational licensing and reforms that promote reciprocity among states. We could see a roll back of occupational regulations.
- Licensing boards and those who are involved in licensing regulations should examine the ways in which the regulation affects or could affect competition, whether there is evidence that a regulation is necessary to achieve the targeted policy goal, whether the regulation is narrowly tailored to meet the policy goal, and whether a less restrictive alternative is available to achieve the policy goal and benefit competition.