The federal antitrust enforcement agencies brought three hospital merger challenges and three criminal antitrust enforcement actions in healthcare in the past year. Combined with the incoming Democratic administration, healthcare antitrust enforcement is likely to remain strong in 2021.
Our Health Antitrust Year in Review:
Examines specific antitrust challenges and enforcement actions that impacted hospitals and health systems, payors and other healthcare companies in 2020;
Offers lessons learned from these developments in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic; and
Provides analysis of the enforcement trends, federal guidelines and state policy updates that are likely to shape the healthcare antitrust landscape in 2021.
Alexandra Lewis, an incoming associate in our Chicago office, also contributed to this Special Report.
In 2019, the total number of antitrust cases filed against providers dropped to 20 after the 2018 bump (27 cases). In the latest Health Antitrust Litigation Update for Providers, we discuss what kinds of cases were brought over the past two years and how they were decided, and what cases warrant particular attention in 2020.
On May 7, 2019, Governor Jay Inslee of Washington State signed House Bill 1607 into law. The law goes into effect for transactions closing after January 1, 2020, and requires advance notice to the Washington Attorney General (AG) of certain transactions 60 days in advance of closing the transaction. The intent of the law is “to ensure that competition beneficial to consumers in health care markets across Washington remains vigorous and robust[.]”
Parties must file written notice with the AG for any deal that involves two or more hospitals, hospital systems, or other provider organizations that represent seven or more health care providers in contracting with insurance companies or third-party administrators. A “provider” includes a physician, nurse, medical assistant, therapist, midwife, athletic trainer, home care aide, massage therapist, among others.
The law can apply to transactions involving very small medical groups, as long as there are seven providers who contract with insurance providers. The law can also apply to transactions with non-Washington parties if the out-of-state party generates $10 million or more in revenue from Washington patients.
Given the relatively low thresholds for an AG filing, this law would require notifications for transactions that are not reportable under the Hart-Scott-Rodino Act (HSR Act), as well as those that are reportable under the HSR Act.
If a transaction is HSR reportable, the parties must submit their HSR filing to the AG.
If a transaction is not HSR reportable, parties must submit the following information in writing to the AG:
The names and addresses of the parties;
The locations where health care services are provided by each party;
A brief description of the nature and purpose of the proposed transaction; and
The anticipated effective date of the transaction.
The notification requirement applies to mergers, acquisitions and contracting affiliations. A contracting affiliation is a “formation of a relationship between two or more entities that permits the entities to negotiate jointly with carriers or third-party administrators over rates for professional medical services” but does not include arrangements among entities under common ownership.
The penalty for noncompliance is $200 per day.
The AG has 30 days from the date of notice to submit a request to the parties for additional information. If the AG has antitrust concerns, it may serve a civil investigative demand to investigate.
At both the state and federal level, antitrust enforcement agencies continue to pursue successful challenges to physician practice transactions. This article summarizes two recent enforcement actions, as well as a new state law that requires prior notice of healthcare provider transactions. We also offer practical takeaways for providers pursuing practice acquisitions.
2018 saw a significant upswing in antitrust litigation against health care providers; 27 cases were filed in 2018 versus 17 in 2017. In the latest Antitrust Update for Health Care Providers, we discuss what caused the notable rise, what kinds of cases were brought over the past two years and how they were decided, and what cases warrant particular attention in 2019.
The Department of Justice (DOJ) announced last week that it and the State of North Carolina have reached a settlement with Carolinas Healthcare System / Atrium Health relating to provisions in contracts between the health system and commercial insurers that allegedly restrict payors from “steering” their enrollees to lower-cost hospitals. The settlement comes after two years of civil litigation, and serves as an important reminder to hospital systems and health insurers of DOJ’s continued interest in and enforcement against anti-steering practices.
On June 9, 2016, the DOJ and the State of North Carolina filed a complaint in the Western District of North Carolina against the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Hospital Authority, d/b/a Carolinas Healthcare System, now Atrium Health (Atrium).
In its complaint, DOJ accused Atrium of “using unlawful contract restrictions that prohibit commercial health insurers in the Charlotte area from offering patients financial benefits to use less-expensive health care services offered by [Atrium’s] competitors.”
DOJ alleged that Atrium held approximately a 50 percent share of the relevant market and was the dominant hospital system in the Charlotte area. DOJ defined the relevant product market as the sale of general acute care inpatient hospital services to insurers in the Charlotte area.
DOJ alleged that Atrium used market power to negotiate high rates and impose steering restrictions in contracts with insurers that restrict insurers from providing financial incentives to encourage patients to use comparable lower-cost or higher-quality providers. Such financial incentives include health plan designs that charge consumers lower out-of-pocket costs (such as copays and premiums) for using top-tier providers that offer better value, or for subscribing to a narrow network of providers.
Atrium also allegedly prevented insurers from offering tiered networks with hospitals that competed with Atrium in the top tiers, and imposed restrictions on insurers’ sharing of value information with consumers about the cost and quality of Atrium’s health care services compared to its competitors. These “steering restrictions” allegedly reduced competition and resulted in harm to consumers, employers, and insurers in the Charlotte area.
Atrium allegedly included these steering restrictions in its contracts with the four largest insurers who in turn provide coverage to more than 85 percent of commercially insured residents in the Charlotte area.
On March 30, 2017, the court denied Atrium’s motion for judgment on the pleadings, finding that the government met its initial pleading burden. Atrium had argued that the complaint failed to properly allege that the contract provisions actually lessened competition or lacked procompetitive effects.
More than a year later, on November 15, 2018, DOJ announced that the State of North Carolina and DOJ had reached a settlement with Atrium, which prohibits Atrium from continuing its practices of using alleged steering restrictions in contracts with commercial health insurers. The proposed settlement also prevents Atrium from “taking actions that would prohibit, prevent, or penalize steering by insurers in the future.” The agreement lists certain prohibitions and permissions for Atrium; for example, that Atrium [...]
On August 31, 2017, the Attorney General of Washington filed a complaint in the United States District Court for the Western District of Washington alleging that two transactions harmed competition for healthcare on the Kitsap Peninsula.
In July 2016, CHI Franciscan Health System (Franciscan) acquired WestSound Orthopedics (WestSound), a physician practice of seven orthopedists based in Silverdale, Washington.
In September 2016, Franciscan entered into a set of agreements which allowed The Doctors Clinic (TDC), a 54 physician multispecialty practice also based in Silverdale, to use Franciscan’s reimbursement rates with payors in exchange for certain ancillary services.
While the publicly stated rationale for the transactions included “enhanced patient access and efficiency,” the Attorney General’s complaint alleged that the “true motivation” for the deals was to “charge higher rates for physician services, and to collectively gain negotiating clout over healthcare payers by removing head-to-head competition.”
The complaint also alleges that the TDC agreements would enable Franciscan to effectively shut down TDC’s facilities providing ancillary surgical, imaging, and laboratory services, and shift these outpatient procedures to Franciscan’s nearby inpatient hospital, where it could charge higher, hospital-based rates for the same services.
WHAT THIS MEANS:
Even without involvement from the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), state attorneys general can and do independently challenge transactions they consider anticompetitive and continue to be aggressive in pursuing enforcement actions where health systems either acquire physician practices or use other agreements to charge higher rates for physician and ancillary services
Health systems should consider that even unreportable transactions may trigger a challenge from either the FTC or state attorneys general to unwind them and, if a transaction has been consummated, any profits resulting from an unlawful transaction may be subject to disgorgement.
Since internal emails and documents discussing a transaction, even one that does not meet the Hart-Scott-Rodino Act’s reporting threshold, may eventually surface in an antitrust investigation, this illustrates how “bad documents” can undermine obtaining clearance for a transaction.
During the last several years, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has taken an active role in antitrust enforcement in the health care industry, particularly with respect to hospital and physician group acquisitions. Last week, the FTC held a two-day public workshop to examine new trends and developments in the health care industry related to professional regulations of health care providers, health information technology, new care delivery models, quality measurements and pricing transparency and how those developments may affect competition. Health care providers should anticipate increased FTC scrutiny of these trends and how they affect health care costs, quality, access and care coordination.
In a challenge brought both by private plaintiffs and the government, a court has ruled that a health system’s acquisition of a competing physician group practice violated the antitrust laws where the transaction resulted in the health system employing 80 percent of the primary care physicians in one area. Hospitals and health systems pursuing physician practice mergers should carefully consider the implications of this decision on proposed acquisitions and should incorporate antitrust due diligence into their transaction planning.
In a recent advisory opinion, the Department of Health and Human Services inspector general warned health care providers about entering into contracts that may generate illegal kickbacks and result in administrative penalties. An unnamed anesthesiology provider requested advice regarding a proposed contract with an in-hospital psychiatric service. Currently, the anesthesiology provider is the exclusive provider of anesthesia services to a hospital, with the exception of the in-house psychiatric service, which uses its own provider. Prior to 2011, the anesthesiology provider was the exclusive provider for the hospital, including psychiatric services. In December 2010, however, the psychiatric service relocated its practice to the hospital and negotiated for the right of its anesthesiologist to offer services to its patients, thus eliminating the anesthesiology provider’s exclusivity contract for psychiatric care.
Under the proposed arrangement, the in-house psychiatric service would contract out anesthesiology services to the anesthesiology provider for days when its anesthesiologist is unavailable or an additional anesthesiologist is needed. The anesthesiology provider would receive a per diem payment for each day its services were requested. Per the arrangement, the psychiatric service would retain a fee equal to the difference in the fee billed by the in-house psychiatric service and collected from Medicare, Medicaid, third party payors and patients, and the per diem amount paid to the anesthesiology provider.
Although there was no direct referral for the anesthesiology services, the inspector general cautioned that such remuneration could violate anti-kickback statutes, resulting in the imposition of penalties under sections 1128(b)(7) or 1128A(a)(7) of the Social Security Act. Both of those sections refer to the commission of acts detailed in the federal anti-kickback statute. The inspector general stated that the arrangement essentially allowed the psychiatric service to accomplish indirectly that which it could not do directly—receive a fee from the anesthesiology provider’s revenues in exchange for sending patients to the provider. In effect, such an arrangement constituted a referral.
Under the federal anti-kickback statute, it is illegal to knowingly and willfully offer, pay, solicit or receive any remuneration to induce or reward referrals of items or services reimbursable by a federal health care program. The statute is violated if remuneration is purposefully paid—even if it is just one purpose of the remuneration—with the intent to induce or reward further referrals of items or services payable by a federal health care program. Some safe harbors exist for practices that are unlikely to result in fraud or abuse. Additionally, a determination of intent is required to assess the illegality of the kickbacks. Health care providers should consider how to structure contracts and other arrangements to avoid illegal kickbacks and other anticompetitive effects that may result in administrative penalties.